Nigeria

Overview

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, the second biggest economy, the third largest military power and the biggest oil producer (10th oil producer in the world). Its six most populous cities each house more than 1 million people, and about one out of two West Africans is from Nigeria. As the largest military power in the region, Nigeria played a central role in the ECOWAS efforts  to end the civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone., ECOWAS headquarters are based in Abuja.

A large part of West African economic activity is concentrated in Nigeria. Cross-border activities closely link Southern Niger to the Hausa economy ; Benin and Togo benefit from the major economic activity between Lagos and Ibadan. Cameroon and Chad’s economies are also strongly oriented towards the Nigerian market.   Nigeria has an important economic influence on the entire region, including the franc zone where it has increasingly been making investments (particularly in the banking sector). The stock exchange in Lagos is the only large-scale financial trading centre in the region. Nigeria is also the largest cereal and meat producer in West Africa. Agriculture accounts for almost one third of GDP and about two-thirds of employment, but oil remains the key economic sector. While the country possesses great industrial potential, Nigeria remains highly dependent on oil exports and struggles to develop sufficient refining and production capacities to meet its domestic energy needs.

Since its return to democracy in 1999, Nigeria has enjoyed 13 years of uninterrupted democratic rule. However, security concerns are on the rise, in particular since the emergence of the radical Islamist sect Boko Haram which has killed more than 1 000 people since 2009. Moreover, Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) militants have abandoned a three-year-old ceasefire. The successful political transition from a northern to a southern leader in April 2011 proved that “a Nigerian, irrespective of where he or she comes from, who is popular with Nigerians generally has a good chance of winning the presidency”. North-South antagonism will continue to play a visible role in Nigerian politics.

Institutional Framework

Government type:

Federal Republic


Constitution: adopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999

 


Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law

Administrative division
36 states and 1 territory*: Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara

Executive branch:
  • Chief of state: President Goodluck JONATHAN (since 5 May 2010, acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi SAMBO (since 19 May 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; JONATHAN assumed the presidency on 5 May 2010 following the death of President YAR'ADUA; JONATHAN was declared Acting President on 9 February 2010 by the National Assembly during the extended illness of the former president
  • Head of government: President Goodluck JONATHAN (since 5 May 2010, acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi SAMBO (since 19 May 2010)
  • Cabinet: Federal Executive Council

Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

Judical branch:
Supreme Court (judges recommended by the National Judicial Council and appointed by the president); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government from a pool of judges recommended by the National Judicial Council)

Political parties:
  • Accord Party 
  • Action Congress (AC)
  • All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP)
  • All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA)
  • Alliance for Democracy (AD) 
  • Conference of Nigerian Political Parities (CNPP) 
  • Democratic Peoples Party (DPP) 
  • Fresh Democratic Party
  • Labor Party 
  • National Democratic Party (NDP) 
  • Peoples Democratic Party (PDP)
  • Peoples Progressive Alliance

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Elections: President elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)

Election results: Goodluck JONATHAN 58.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI 32.0%, Nuhu RIBADU 5.4%, Ibrahim SHEKARAU 2.4%, other 1.3%

Central bank: Central Bank of Nigeria

Military branches:

Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force


Military age and obligations:

18 years of age for voluntary military service


Membership in regional organisations:

ABN, AfDB, AU, CBLT, CEN-SAD, ECOWAS


Source: CIA Factbook, Country Profile Nigeria

Regional Indicators

Land boundaries:

4 047 km


Border countries:

Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1 690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1 497 km


Coastline: 853 km

Airports:

54 with paved runways:  38 (2010)


Railways:

3 505 km


Roadways:

193 200 km; paved: 28 980 km; unpaved: 164 220 km (2004)


Waterways: 8 600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2009)

Ports and terminals: Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos

Demographic Trends

  • Population 2010: 158 423 000
  • Projection 2050: 389 615 000
  • Population < 15 years:  (42.8% *158 423 000 = 67 805 044)
  • Population density: 171/sq. km
  • Urban agglomeration: Lagos (10 578 000 =6.7%), Kano (3 395 000 =2.1%), Ibadan (2 837 000 =1.8%)
  • Annual Growth: 2.50% (2005-2010)> 2.53%
  • Woman fertility (children per women): 5.61 (2005-2010)> 5.43
  • Median age:  18.5
  • Dependency ratio:  86

Migration and Mobility

 

  • Number of emigrants (2010): 1 000 000 =0.6% of pop
  • Number of immigrants (2010): 1 127 700 = 0.7% of pop
  • Top destination countries: the United States, the United Kingdom, Chad, Cameroon, Italy, Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Spain, Sudan, Niger
  • Refugees within country: 10 100 (2009)

 

Economic Indicators

GDP total (2011): USD 401 539 million – 60% of West Africa’s regional GDP
GDP per capita (2011): USD 2 471
Annual Growth (2011): 6.78.2%
Average growth (2001-11): 7.5%
Currency: Naira
Inflation Rate: 10.8% (2011)

Main Exports: oil and oil derived products 85.2%, cocoa, rubber (2012)
Main Export partners: USA 37%, EU 22.5% India 12.1%, Brazil 7.7% (2010)
Imports: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and animals
Main Import partners: China 13.9%, USA 9.3%, Netherlands 8.6%, UK 4.9%, France 4.4% (2009)
GDP – composition by sector:
 
agriculture: 35.2%
industry: 32.9%
services: 35.2% (2010 est.)

Trade balance: USD 29 500 million
Foreign Direct Investment inflows:  USD 20 279 million (2008)

Remittances 2011: USD 10 681 million, 4.5% of GDP, USD 60.50 per capita

ODA received: USD 1 290 million, 0.43% of GDP, USD 10.47 per capita 

Category: Lower middle income (2012)

Sources: African Economic Outlook 2012, CIA World Factbook, EU Commission

Public Spending on:
•    Education as a percentage of total government expenditure (1995!): 0.8%
•    Health as a percentage of total government expenditure (2012): 5.1%
•    Military: USD  2 410 million, 1% of GDP (2012)
    Sources: Global Health Observatory Data Repository - World Health Organisation, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
 
External Debt: USD 4 460 million, 3.1% of GDP
Debt service (as % of Exports 2011): 0.7%
Public finance (% of GDP 2009):
•    Revenue and grants: 30.6%
•    Expenditures and net lending: 30.4%
•    Overall balance: 0.2

Source: African Economic Outlook 2012

Corruption Perception Index (xx/10):  2.4 (143/178)
Index of Economic Freedom (xx/100):  56.3 (116/179)
WB Doing Business index:  133/183
Ibrahim African Governance index:  41.0 (2011)
Human development index:  0.495 =156/169 (2011)

Sources: 2012 Corruption Perception Index – Transparency International; 2012 Index of Economic Freedom – Heritage Foundation; 2012 IFC Doing Business Report; 2012 Mo Ibrahim Foundation; 2011 Human Development Report

Food Security

Global Hunger Index (IFPRI, 2011): 15.5

Food supply (kcal per capita/day) 2 708

Number of people undernourished:
9.2 million

:Percentage of people undernourished:

6%

Child malnutrition, underweight: 29%

Child malnutrition, stunting: 38%

Land use


Land area (1 000 ha): 91 077

Agricultural land area (1 000 ha):
74 500

Arable land (1 000 ha):

37 500

Permanent crops (1 000 ha): 3 000

Pastures (1 000 ha): 38 000

Irrigated land (1 000 ha): 293

Share in total water use by
  • agriculture: 68.8%
  • industry: 10.1%
  • domestic use: 21.1%

Forest area (1000 ha): 9 041

Source: FAOStat and FAO Country Profile

Social Indicators

Religion & Ethnicity

  • Ethnic Groups : Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
  • Major Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

Health

 

  • Life Expectancy: 47.8 (2005-2010)
  • Under-five Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births) (2008): 186
  • Number of physicians (for 100 000 people) (2004): 25.9
  • Hospital Beds (for 10 000 people): N.A
  • Estimated HIV prevalence (2007): 3.1%

 

Education:

 

  • Adult literacy rate: (% age 15 and above): 60,1% (2008)
  • Youth Literacy Rate: 71,5% (2008)
  • Net Primary Enrolment Ratio: 21632070 (2007)
  • Net Secondary Enrolment Ration: 6068160 (2007)
  • Tertiary Students: N.A
  • University attendance Ration: 10% (2005)

 

ICT & Media:

 

  • Internet Access (per 100 inhabitants) 2009: 28.43
  • Internet domain: .ng
  • International dialing code: 234 (Abuja add 9, Lagos add 1, Jos add 73)
  • Mobile line (per 100 inhabitants) 2009: 48.16
  • Main telephone line (per 100 inhabitants) 2009: 0.92

Basic Services:

  • Access to electricity 2007: kWh 22383 millions
  • Water supply coverage 2008: 58% (urban 75%, rural 42%)
  • Sanitation coverage2008: 32% (urban 36%, rural 28%)